‘Adl’ is an Arabic word. It literally means maintaining balance, doing ‘Insaf’ or justice properly. Ot os like dividing a thind between two claimants th such a way as each gets equal share. In the Islamic terminolology, adl means giving a person his/her due share. The opposite world for Adl is Zulm is the act of depriving a person of his/her due share. A court house is called Adalat, because it is the place where verdicts are delivered in favore of the real Haqders or the really deserving persons.
Adl is a great virtue. In the social life of human beings, the importance of adl unlimited. Adl is the basis of mutual relationship, social peace and order and good governance. In a slocety, where there is
no adl, there cannot be any peace or security. In a society or a state where justice is absence no peace and security prevail there. In a society where justice prevails, no one dares to commit any wrong. As a result peace and order prevail in society. Everyone can live with his/her rights and status. Therefore, Adl is the basis of establishing peace in society.
Absence of Adl gives way to injustice. In a society where punishment to the wrong-orders is absent, injustice spreads all around like a contagious disease. And corruption prevails everywhere in that society and pollutes it thoroughly. The wrong-doers start their misactivities with renewed vigour venewed vigour whenever they find an opportunity. As a result, law and order disappears from society making life unbearable.
An honest judge is endowed with Taqwa. He fears Allah and believers that for his judgement he will be accountable to Him. So he delivers judgment justly. About this, Allah says:
“You establish Adl, because it is very close to Taqwa.” (Sura Mayida: 5,8)
In the day of the final judgement (Hashr) there will be no shade except the shade of the Arsh Arsh of Allah. At that time the upright judge will be given shelter in the shalter in the shade under the Arsh of Allah.
Characteristics of Islamic Adl:
Adl should be based on the Quran and Sunnah. In this system all are equal. There is no difference between father and mother, son and daughter, relatives and non-relatives, high and low, wicked and gentle, rich poor, strong and weak in Adl. One should not be suppressed for the sake of doi8ng a favour to the other. In this respect Allah says: “You give judgement according to that what Allah has revealed to you and do not follow their ill wills avoiding the truth that has come to you” (Sura Almayida-48)
In the case of a trial speak the truth even if the accoused person is your relative. Allah says in this regard:
“When you speak (about trial) always speak the truth, even if he/she (the person under trial) is a close relative (of yours).”
The prophet (Sm) was the true embodiment of justice. To him, even there was no difference beteeen relative and non-relative, rich and poor. Once a lady from the Quraish tribe was caught for stealing. The Prophet (Sm) ordered that her hand be cut. Some people pleaded to reduce her punishment as she came of a respectable family. The Prophet (Sm) got angry and said : “If my dayughter Fatima is caught for stealing today, her hand would also have to be cut. “ He also said: “ listen, your previous nations were destroyed for lacking in this Adl.”